Chương IIII: Giới từ trong lĩnh vực tiếng Anh Pháp lý

Chương IIII: Giới từ trong lĩnh vực tiếng Anh Pháp lý

Nguyễn Phước Vĩnh Cố
Tôn Nữ Thanh Thảo
Tôn Nữ Hải Anh
Bảo Nguyên

Nếu biết trăm năm là hữu hạn…

Xin vui lòng trích dẫn nguồn khi dùng lại bài từ blog này!

Giới từ

Giới từ + (the/a) law
1. Above
2. Against
3. By
4. Under the law
5. Under a/these
6. Within

1. Above the law: Đứng trên luật

Ví dụ
No one is above the law.
Don’t think you are above the law.
She acts as if she’s above the law.
The judgement underlines the point that nobody, not even the executive, is above the law.

2. Against the law: Trái luật, phạm luật

Ví dụ
Stealing is against the law.
That’s against the law.
In Sweden, it is against the law to hit a child.
Child recruitment is against the law in Nepal.
It is against the law to discriminate against someone because of their race or sex.
It is against the law for children to work before they are fifteen.
What you did was clearly against the law.

3. By law: Theo luật

Ví dụ
Chilren not admitted – by law.
British schools are now required by law to publish their exam results.
Employers are required by law to provide a safe working environment.
The wearing of seatbelt in cars is required by law.
By law, a company like British Gas has to hold a meeting of its shareholders once a year.

4. Under the law: Dưới pháp luật

Ví dụ
The Constitution specifies that all people are equal under the law.

5. Under a law/these laws: Theo một điều luật/theo những điều luật này

Ví dụ
Persons convicted under these laws can receive up to two years’imprisonment.

6. Within the law: Đúng luật

Ví dụ
The company is operating entirely within the law.
Defence attorneys can use any means within the law to get their client off.
Transparency International gives the highest rating to regimes that always act within the law.

Law + giới từ

1. Law on: Điều luật về

Ví dụ
The law on compulsory seat belts has been a success.
The government has introduced some tough new law on food hygien.
A law on hunting will cause a lot of disagreement.

2. Law against: Điều luật phản/chống đối

Ví dụ
A local law against keeping horses
Laws against sex discrimination and increased support for child care helped open up the workplace to women.

Cụm giới từ

1. According to
2. In accordance with
3. Pursuant to
4. Subject to
5. Without prejudice to
6. With prejudice
7. Without prejudice
8. In the event that/in the event of
9. In case/in case of
10. As of:
11. Due to
12. Owing to

1. According to: Theo (nguồn tin)

Ví dụ
According to the bylaws, the board of directors has five members.

2. In accordance with: Tuân thủ, tuân theo, theo đúng (luật, điều luật)
Ví dụ
The decision to declare a dividend was adopted by the board of directors in accordance with bylaws.

3. Pursuant to: Chiếu theo, căn cứ theo

Ví dụ
This bid is submitted pursuant to the laws of New York State.
A complaint was made pursuant to section 13 of the Act of 1987.

4. Subject to: Tuân theo, dựa theo, dưới quyền của ai

Ví dụ
In all jurisdictions, financial agreements are subject to the law of contract.
We are subject to the law of the land.
Subject to the terms to this Agreement, the Producer agrees to be bound by the terms to the following marketing agreement.

5. Without prejudice to: Không xâm hại, không gây thương tổn đến ai

Ví dụ
The code is to be applied without prejudice to the rights of refugees.
The offer was accepted without prejudice to the current pay negotiations.
The firm agreed to pay compensation without prejudice (không bị truy cứu).

6. With prejudice: Không cho quyền kiện
Dismiss(al) with prejudice: Bác bỏ nhưng không cho quyền kiện trở lại

Ví dụ
All pending lawsuits between the two companies will be dismissed with prejudice.

7. Without prejudice: Cho quyền kiện trở lại
Dismiss(al) without prejudice: Bác bỏ nhưng cho quyền kiện trở lại
Ví dụ
The findings were accepted without prejudice.

8. In the event that/in the event of: Nếu điều gì đó xảy ra

Ví dụ
In the event that deficiencies in the Equipment become evident, such deficiencies shall be corrected by ABC during the two days per week during which the Purchaser will not be testing.
In the event of an accident, call this number.

9. In case/in case of

Ví dụ
In case no settlement can be reached through negotiation, the case shall then be submitted to the Arbitration Tribunal of the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce in accordance with the Arbitration Rules and Procedure of the said Tribunal.
In case of fire, ring the alarm bell.
In case of any divergence of interpretation, the English text shall prevail.

10. As from/of: Từ, tính từ + thời điểm/ngày tháng

Ví dụ
The new land on employment is in force as from/of midnight tonight.
We shall have a new address as from/of 12 May.

11. Due to: Do ai, cái gì/vì ai, cái gì

Ví dụ
The office is closed tomorrow due to a public holiday.

12. Owing to: Do ai, cái gì/vì ai, cái gì

Ví dụ
The advice given to the client was amended owing to a recent decision of the Court of Appeal.

Động từ + giới từ

1. Abide by: Làm theo/tuân theo cái gì

Ví dụ
You’ll have to abide by the rules of the club.
We will abide by their decision.

2. Accuse sb of sth: Buộc tội ai
* Be accused of sth: Bị buộc tội

Ví dụ
The police accused him of cheating/theft.
* He was accused of cheating/theft.

3. Acquit sb of sth: Tha bổng cho ai
* Be acquitted of sth: Được tha bổng, được trắng án

Ví dụ
The jury acquitted him of murder.
To her relief, she was acquitted of all the charges laid against her.

4. Appeal to sth against sth: Chống án

Ví dụ
She appealed to the high court against her sentence.

5. Arrest sb for (doing) sth: Bắt ai vì (đã) làm gì
* Be arrested for (doing sth): Bị bắt vì (đã) làm gì

Ví dụ
Police arrested them for their dangerous driving.
* They were arrested for their dangerous driving.

6. Behead sb with: Chặt đầu ai đó bằng

Ví dụ
The executioner beheaded him with an axe.

7. Bequeath sth to sb: Để cái gì lại cho ai

Ví dụ
She bequeathed everything to him.

8. Blackmail sb (into doing sth): Hăm dọa ai

Ví dụ
Don’t you think you can blackmail me (into doing what you want). I’ll report you to the police.

9. Book sb for sth: Ghi tên phạt ai vì tội gì
* Be booked for sth: Bị ghi tên phạt vì tội gì

Ví dụ
The police booked me for speeding.
I was booked for speeding.

10. Charge sb with sth: Buộc ai tội gì
* Be charged of: Bị buộc tội

Ví dụ
The police charged him with theft.
He was charged with theft.

11. Cheat sb out of sth: Lừa gạt ai để lấy cái gì

Ví dụ
He accused of his employer of deliberately trying to cheat him out of his redundancy money.

12. Clear sb of sth: Chứng minh ai vô tội
* Be cleared of sth: Được chứng minh là vô tôi

Ví dụ
The lawyer cleared him of the charge.
She was cleared of all charges against her.
13. Convict sb of sth: Kết tội ai, kết án ai
* Be convicted of: Bị kết tội

Ví dụ
The jury convicted him of money laundering.
The jury convicted the defendant of murder.
The defendant was convicted of murder.

14. Detain sb for sth: Giam giữ ai

Ví dụ
The police detained two men for questioning.

15. Deter sb from (doing) sth: Ngăn ngừa ai làm gì

Ví dụ
We may deter other from doing the same thing.

16. Defraud sb of sth: Lừa gạt ai cái gì

Ví dụ
She defrauded her brother of his share of the land.
She defrauded her employers of thousands of pounds.

17. Extort sth (money) from sb: Tống tiền ai

Ví dụ
He extorted the money from her by threats and blackmail
Smith was arrested on suspicion of having extorted property and money from at least 18 clients.

18. Legislate for/against/on sth: Xây dựng luật để chống lại

Ví dụ
The government will legislate against discrimination in the workplace.

19. Fine sb for sth: Phạt tiền ai
* Be fined for sth: Bị phạt tiền

Ví dụ
They fined him heavily for the offence.
He was fined for speeding.

20. Pick sb up for sth: Bắt ai để làm gì

Ví dụ
The police picked him up last night for questioning.

21. Punish sb for sth: Phạt ai về điều gì
* Be punished for sth: Bị phạt về điều gì

Ví dụ
His father punished him for stealing.
* He was punished for stealing.

22. Rob sb of sth: Cướp ai cái gì
* Be robbed of sth: Bị cướp cái gì

Ví dụ
The bandits robbed us of all our money.
We were robbed of all our money.

23. Sentence sb to: Tuyên án ai, kết án ai
* Be sentenced to: Bị kết án

Ví dụ
They sentenced him to three years’imprisonment.
He was sentenced to three years’imprisonment.

24. Suspect sb of sth: Nghi ngờ ai làm điều gì

Ví dụ
What made you suspect her of having taken the money?
Who do the police suspect (of the crime)?

25. Swindle sb out of sth/sth out of sb: Lừa ai cái gì

Ví dụ
They swindled him out of hundreds of dollars/hundreds of dollars out of him.

Tính từ + giới từ

1. Based on: Dựa vào, có nền tảng từ

Ví dụ
In some respects, European law is based more on case law than on statute.

2. Entitled to: Có quyền

Ví dụ
He is entitled to compensation.

3. Guilty of : Phạm tội

Ví dụ
He was guilty of theft.

4. Innocent of: Vô tội

Ví dụ
She was innocent of the charge.

5. Liable for: Chịu trách nhiệm theo pháp luật

Ví dụ
Is the wife liable for her husband’s debt?



Andy Nova

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Written by Andy Nova

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